The human reproductive system functions to produce human offspring, with the male providing sperm and the female providing the ovum.
The male reproductive system includes external (penis, scrotum, epididymus, and testes) and internal (accessory) organs.
The purpose of the scrotum is to provide the testes with a chamber of appropriate temperature for optimal sperm production.
The testis is homologous to the ovary in that it produces the male gamete (sperm) while the ovary produces the female gamete (egg).
In human males, the penis serves as both a reproductive organ and as a urinal duct.
Testes ducts, which include the seminiferous tubules and vas deferens,
are involved in the creation or transportation of sperm.
The accessory sex glands produce seminal fluid and clean and lubricate the urethra.
Physiological changes occur to male genitalia during sexual arousal.
Sperm are the male "seeds," germ cells, or gametes.
Male gametes (sperm cells) are haploid cells produced via spermatogenesis.
Semen is a fluid produced by the seminal vesicles.
The male reproductive system is regulated by the production, stimulation, and feedback of specific hormones.
Meiosis is the nuclear division of diploid cells into haploid cells, which is a necessary step in sexual reproduction.
Mitosis and meiosis share some similarities, but also some differences, most of which are observed during meiosis I.
The human female reproductive system contains two main parts: the uterus and the ovaries, which produce a woman's egg cells.
The ovaries are the ovum-producing organs of the internal female reproductive system.
The uterus is the largest and major organ of the female reproductive tract that is the site of fetal growth and is hormonally responsive.
The Fallopian tubes, or oviducts, connect the ovaries to the uterus.
The vagina is the female reproductive tract and has two primary functions: sexual intercourse and childbirth.
The vulva is the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract, situated immediately external to the genital orifice.
The perineum is the region between the genitals and the anus, including the perineal body and surrounding structures.
A mammary gland is an organ in female mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Oogenesis is the maturation of the female gametes through meiotic division.
The menstrual cycle is the physiological process that fertile women undergo for the purposes of reproduction and fertilization.
The uterine cycle describes a series of changes that occur to the lining of the uterus, or endometrium, during a typical menstrual cycle.
The menstrual cycle is controlled by a series of changes in hormone levels, primarily estrogen and progesterone.
Estrogen and progesterone have several effects beyond their immediate roles in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and labor.
Female sexual arousal causes physiological changes including increased blood flow to the genitals and enlargement and lubrication of the vagina.
Surgical sterilization refers to any of a number of surgical techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to reproduce.
Hormonal contraception is a type of birth control that acts on the endocrine system to prevent ovulation and/or fertilization.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is form of birth control that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that eradicates sperm and is inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Barrier contraception methods prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus.
Periodic abstinence refers to abstaining from sexual intercourse during the fertile days of a menstrual cycle.
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability.
Reproductive organs develop from the Wolffian ducts in males and the Mullerian ducts in females.
Puberty is the process through which a child matures and becomes capable of sexual reproduction.
Menopause is the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the human ovaries, usually in a woman's 40's or 50's.
A sexually transmitted infection is passed between people during unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner.
Cryptorchidism is a condition present at birth in boys where one or more of the testes is absent from the scrotum.
A vasectomy is a surgical procedure performed on the vasa deferentia of a man to permanently prevent sperm from entering the ejaculate.
Circumcision is the surgical removal of either the foreskin in males, or the clitoris and labia in females.
Premature ejaculation is a medical condition where a man engaged in sexual intercourse ejaculates earlier than he would like to.
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled vacuole within or on an ovary.
Uterine prolapse occurs when the ligaments supporting the uterus become so weak that the uterus slips down from its normal position.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, and may also include removal of the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and cervix.
An episiotomy is a cut made to the perineum to allow a baby to be born without tearing the perineum.
Breast augmentation is surgical enhancement of the breasts to increase size, while reduction is surgical removal of tissue to decrease size.
Fibrocystic breast disease is a condition where noncancerous lumps develop in the breast, causing discomfort during the menstrual cycle.
Female athlete triad is a combination of eating disorders, disrupted menstruation, and low bone density.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to develop or maintain an erection during sexual intercourse.
Testicular cancer develops in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum.
The common prostate disorders are: prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostate cancer.
Premenstrual syndrome refers to a wide range of emotional and physical symptoms associated with a female's menstrual cycle.
Endometriosis is a condition where the cells of the endometrium leak out and grow outside of the uterine cavity.
Breast cancer is one that grows in the breast tissue of humans and often originates in the milk ducts.
Cervical cancer is a cancer that originates in the cervix of a female.
Ovarian cancer arises from the epithelial layer of the ovary and in some cases, the fallopian tube.
Candidal vulvovaginitis is an infection of the vagina's mucous membranes caused by Candida albicans.