Breathing allows for the delivery oxygen to internal tissues and cells where it is needed, and allows for the removal of CO2.
The respiratory system include lungs, airways and respiratory muscles. Ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung.
The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum.
The human pharynx is part of the digestive system and also the respiratory system.
The larynx is an organ in the neck involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Voices produce sounds through a steady flow of air through the larynx, which causes vibrations and creates fluctuations in air pressure.
The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air.
A bronchus is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs and divides into terminal bronchioles.
The lungs are an essential organ which is necessary for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the body.
The lungs are located on either side of the heart and are separated by fissures into lobes, three in the right and two lobes in the left.
Alveoli are hollow cavities in the lung that perform gas exchange with the blood.
Pulmonary circulation transports oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart.
Ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung.
Inhalation is the flow of air into an organism that is due to a pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus.
Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the respiratory current out of the organism.
The surface tension of alveolar fluid is regulated by pulmonary surfactant, allowing efficient respiration.
Lung compliance refers to the magnitude of change in lung volume as a result of the change in pulmonary pressure.
Airway resistance refers to resistance in the respiratory tract to airflow.
Breathing is an autonomic process that moves air in and out of the lungs.
Lung volumes and capacities refer to phases of the respiratory cycle; lung volumes are directly measured while capacities are inferred.
The lungs have a number of metabolic functions in addition to their functions in gas exchange.
Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the individual components.
Henry's law states that the amount of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas.
Respiration is the transport of oxygen to the cells within tissues and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Cellular respiration is the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy through the reaction of oxygen with glucose.
Hemoglobin is the primary transporter of oxygen with an oxygen binding capacity between 1.36 and 1.37 ml O2 per gram Hgb.
CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways: dissolved in plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or as a biocarbonate ion.
The medulla and the pons are involved in the regulation of the ventilatory pattern of respiration.
The cerebral cortex of the brain controls voluntary respiration.
Chemoreceptors detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood by monitoring the concentrations of hydrogen ions in the blood.
The Hering–Breuer inflation reflex prevents overinflation of the lungs.
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart.
The human body can adapt to high altitude through immediate and long-term acclimatization processes.
Lung development can be divided into distinct stages: the pseudoglandular period, the canalicular period, and the terminal saccular period.
In mammals, breathing is produced by a flattening of the diaphragm and lung expansion. Lung elasticity declines with aging.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.
Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs.
Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, is the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure.
Rhinoplasty, a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form of the nose.
A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed from either side of the throat.
Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx which causes hoarse voice or the complete loss of the voice.
Tracheotomy consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway via an incision in the trachea.
Pneumothorax, or collapsed lung, is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space of the lung that interferes with breathing.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries or acute infection to the lung.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning occurs after excess inhalation of the odorless, colorless gas.
Hypoxia, or hypoxiation, is inadequate oxygen supply to the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or a region of the body (tissue hypoxia).
Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung caused by a bacteria, virus, fungi or parasite which affects the alveoli.
Influenza is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae that affects birds and mammals.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to respiratory congestion, multiple organ failure, and metabolic changes.
Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is marked by the sudden death of an infant that is not predicted by medical history.