Dutch explorers originally reached America searching for the Indies, but quickly settled territories and named them New Netherland.
Analyze the Dutch Empire in North America
The Dutch presence in the new world was as a commercial venture run by the Dutch East India Company, which commissioned ship captain Henry Hudson to explore the American coast and search for a path to the Indies, otherwise known as the Northwest Passage.
The Dutch East India Company soon realized that founding a colony and exploiting the Native American fur trade would be a more profitable venture.
In 1664, the English captured the Dutch colonies and renamed them New York and New Jersey.
Henry Hudson (c. 1560s/70s–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century.
In 1602, the government of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands chartered the Dutch East India Company with the mission of exploring for a passage to the Indies and claiming any uncharted areas for the United Provinces. This charter led to several significant expeditions, and eventually to the creation of the province of New Netherland.
In 1609, the Dutch East India Company commissioned English explorer Henry Hudson who, in an attempt to find the fabled northwest passage to the Indies, discovered and claimed for the VOC parts of the present-day United States and Canada. In the belief that it was the best route to explore, Hudson entered the Upper New York Bay and sailed up the river which now bears his name. In 1614, Adriaen Block led an expedition to the lower Hudson and compiled the first map to apply the name "New Netherland" to the area between English Virginia and French Canada.
After some early trading expeditions, the first Dutch settlement in the Americas was founded at Fort Nassau in 1615, near present-day Albany. In 1621, a new company was established with a trading monopoly in the Americas and West Africa: the Dutch West India Company. The new company sought recognition for New Netherland as a province, which was granted in 1623.
In 1626, the Director of the Dutch West India Company, Peter Minuit, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Lenape and started the construction of Fort Amsterdam, which grew to become the main port and capital, New Amsterdam . The colony expanded to outlying areas at Pavonia, Brooklyn, Bronx, and Long Island.
Not all of the inhabitants of the province were ethnically Dutch; many came from a variety of other European countries. There were also Africans, originally brought as slaves. Many New Netherlanders were Walloons, Huguenots, Germans, Scandinavian, and English relocated from New England.
In 1664, an English naval expedition ordered by the Duke of York and Albany (later James II of England) sailed intp the harbor at New Amsterdam, threatening to attack. Being greatly outnumbered, Director-General Peter Stuyvesant surrendered after negotiating favorable articles of capitulation . The province was renamed New York (from James's English title). Fort Orange was renamed Fort Albany (from James's Scottish title). The region between the lower Hudson and the Delaware was deeded to proprietors and called New Jersey.
The loss of New Netherland led to the Second Anglo–Dutch War (1665–1667). This conflict ended with the Treaty of Breda in which the Dutch gave up their claim to New Netherland in exchange for Suriname, a fertile plantation colony in South America. The Dutch government ruled Suriname until 1975.