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Form I-485, Explained

A guide to the timeline, cost, and requirements to file the “Adjustment of Status” form

What is USCIS form I-485 (Adjustment of Status)?

The next step in the family-based green card process after submitting Form I-130 (Petition for Alien Relative) is to submit Form I-485 (Application for Adjustment of Status). In the context of a marriage green card, the I-485’s purpose is to prove that the foreign spouse is eligible for U.S. permanent residency. The spouse, whose signature is on the I-485, is called the “applicant.”

When the foreign husband or wife is present in the United States, it is often possible to file the I-130 and the I-485 at the same time (a process known as “concurrent filing”).

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Form I-485 timeline

Form I-485 processing times

The processing time for Form I-485 for family-based applications is currently 10–23  months (Boundless updates these figures monthly, based on analysis of USCIS data).

Processing times for Form I-485 vary depending on your category of adjustment and which USCIS field office is processing the application.

If you have filed Form I-140 for an employment-based adjustment of status, your I-140 must be approved first.

Form I-485 to green card timeline

Depending on your situation, the time it takes from filing Form I-485 to getting a green card can be anywhere from a few months to a few years.

Some factors affecting this process include your eligibility to adjust your status. If you are applying through a family-based process, then your relationship with the U.S. citizen who has petitioned on your behalf will also affect how long things will take.

Another factor that will affect the I-485 to green card timeline is which USCIS Service Center you applied to. You can check processing times for your USCIS Service Center using this tool.

Expedited processing for Form I-485

Premium processing is not available for Form I-485, but you may be able to request expedited processing through the USCIS Contact Center. Make sure to have your 13-digit USCIS Form I-485 receipt number on hand so that your request can be forwarded to the correct office.

The sooner you get started on your I-485 application, the better. With Boundless, all the required forms listed above turn into simple questions you can answer in under two hours. Get started today.

Form I-485 cost

The government filing fee for an I-485 application is $1440. In some situations, the fee for an I-485 might be lower or waived entirely (see the filing fee section of the I-485 instructions for details).

Important Update (January 31, 2024):

The cost to file a standalone Form I-485 will increase from $1440 to $1440 on April 1, 2024. Learn more about USCIS’ upcoming fee changes here and get started on your application with Boundless now to avoid higher filing costs.

Not sure what costs to expect? Boundless’ USCIS fee calculator can help determine the exact government fees for your application. We also help you pay your costs in installments, so you can get started now and pay later. Create a free account to use our fee calculator and explore your payment options.


Who can file Form I-485?

An applicant (relative or husband or wife getting their green card) can file an I-485 based on seven major categories (as listed on the form): family-based, employment-based, special immigrant, asylum or refugee, human trafficking victim or crime victim, special programs, and additional options. The I-485 further divides these seven categories into 27 sub-categories for clarity.

For purposes of a marriage-based green card, only a foreign spouse who is physically present in the United States can file an I-485 to apply for a green card. The spouse must have entered the United States on a valid visa. In addition, an immigrant visa must be “immediately available” for the spouse. This means that Form I-130 must already have been approved (as in the case of the spouse of a green card holder) or the I-130 and the I-485 forms must be concurrently filed (as in the case of the spouse of a U.S. citizen).

Important update for spouses of green card holders (March 24, 2023):

The F-2A family-based category, which includes the spouses and unmarried children under 21 of U.S. Green Card holders, underwent a significant change in the April 2023 Visa Bulletin. A backlog of cases in this category has caused the “Final Action Dates” for F-2A applications to become no longer current. The “Final Action Dates” refer to applications with priority dates that have reached the front of the line and can be adjudicated. However, the “Dates for Filing” for the F-2A category are still current, allowing applicants to submit their green card applications. These applications will only be processed once their priority date becomes current. The “Final Action Date” or priority date has retrogressed to November 1, 2018, for Mexican applicants and September 8, 2020, for all other applicants. Consequently, there will likely be a significant delay in obtaining green cards in the F-2A category. We will continue to closely monitor this development and provide updates in our monthly Visa Bulletin report.

Who cannot file form I-485?

First, relatives or spouses who are not physically present in the United States cannot file the I-485. Second, even when they are physically present in the United States, there are some eligibility exclusions that prevent the filing of an I-485 application.

You typically cannot file an I-485 if:

  • You entered the United States as a crewman;
  • You entered the United States for transit purposes (i.e. on your way to another country);
  • You were admitted to the United States as a witness or informant; or
  • You are “deportable” because you were involved in terrorist activity or involved with a terrorist group.

In addition to the above eligibility exclusions, there are “inadmissibility” grounds that may prevent you from filing an I-485. This means that you are disqualified from receiving a green card based on certain factors specific to you. These disqualifying categories include:

  • Health-related grounds (you have a disqualifying communicable disease or mental health condition)
  • Criminal grounds (you were convicted of certain specific crimes)
  • Security grounds (you are a threat to the national security of the United States)
  • Violations of immigration law or procedure (you’ve previously broken U.S. immigration laws)
  • Public charge grounds (you are likely to become dependent on public benefits)
  • Other grounds (miscellaneous grounds such as entering the United States to practice polygamy, being an international child abductor, and voting unlawfully)

Depending on the family relationship or the category of green card, “waivers” may be available to remedy some of the above grounds of disqualification.

Do you have confidential questions about how your situation might affect your green card application? With Boundless you get an independent immigration attorney who can help you understand your options. Find out more about what you get with Boundless, or start your application now.

Supporting documents

The I-485 application needs to be filed with supporting documents to prove that the applicant is eligible for a green card. If you don’t have all of your documents on hand, don’t worry! The good news is you can get started on your application now, while you gather your supporting documents. The following must be included with a marriage-based I-485 application:

  • Proof that the spouse entered the United States using a valid visa, demonstrated by a copy of this prior visa and the I-94 travel record (available here).
  • Proof of the foreign spouse’s nationality (copy of a birth certificate and foreign passport).
  • Proof of the sponsoring spouse’s ability to financially support the spouse seeking a green card (copy of the sponsoring spouse’s latest federal income tax returns and pay stubs)—for more details, see our explanation of the “Affidavit of Support.”
  • If the spouse seeking a green card has ever been arrested, proof that there was no conviction (certified copy of the court record).
  • The spouse seeking a green must also include a medical examination performed by a USCIS-approved doctor. You can find one in your area by using the USCIS find a doctor tool.

Secondary evidence

In the event that a required document is not available, you must submit alternative documents (officially called “secondary evidence”) so that USCIS can make a decision on your I-485 application.

For example, if your birth certificate is not available, you can first obtain a statement from the government agency in your home country that is in charge of issuing birth certificates, certifying that your birth certificate is not available through them. You can then submit alternative documents to prove the facts of your birth—essentially, the date and place of your birth, and the names of your parents. Such documents might include baptism records, school records, or census records showing your date of birth, place of birth, and your parents’ names.

If none of the above alternative documents are available, you can submit written statements from at least two people who were alive when you were born, and have personal knowledge about the facts of your birth. These statements could be from your grandparents, uncles, aunts, or even family friends. Each statement should include the author’s full name, address, and date and place of birth; all the facts about your own birth (date, place, and names of your parents); and an explanation of how the author has personal knowledge of these facts.

The I-485 petition is a very important step in any green card application process that’s based on a family relationship. You should think of the I-485 as an opportunity to prove that you are eligible for a green card.

Starting at $649, Boundless helps you complete your entire green card application — including all required forms and supporting documents, independent attorney review, and support — from the moment your application is filed until you receive your green card. Learn more, or check your eligibility without providing any personal or financial information.

Special issues

Public charge

In December, 2022, the government released a new version of Form I-485 to determine whether or not an immigrant is likely to use public benefits. Following the withdrawal of the Trump-era public charge rule, the Biden administration finalized its own version of the rule in September, 2022.

Based on a preview of the new Form I-485, if an applicant answers “yes” to likely being a public charge, they must answer questions about the following items:

  • Size of their household
  • Annual household income
  • Total value of household assets
  • Total value of household liabilities
  • Highest degree or level of education completed
  • List of certifications, licenses, work skills, educational certificates
  • If the applicant has ever received general assistance from the government, such as Supplemental Security Income
  • If the applicant has ever been institutionalized for 30 days or more at the government’s expense

According to the preview version of the new form, applicants won’t need to include any additional supporting documents for the new public charge section.


Use the current edition of the Form I-485 (edition dated 02/21/23).

I-485 FAQs

Where you should mail your I-485 application depends on where you live and your category of adjustment. USCIS provides a chart with all the different scenarios.

If you are helping a relative apply for a green card, Form I-485 (“Application for Adjustment of Status”) is the second step in the family-based green card process after submitting Form I-130 (“Petition for Alien Relative”). If you are the spouse, parent or unmarried child under the age of 21 of a U.S. citizen, you can file these two forms at the same time.

Form I-485 can also be useful for other types of green card applications. Since the purpose of Form I-485 is to adjust your status, it can also be used if you have already entered the United States either with a valid visa or through the Visa Waiver Program, or if you are eligible to apply for a green card through a job offer or on humanitarian grounds.

You must file Form I-485 via mail to a USCIS service center. If you and your relative are filing Form I-130 and Form I-485 together, you can still file Form I-130 online, but you must physically send Form I-485 to the correct USCIS Service Center.

Your spouse or relative must be physically in the United States to file Form I-485. If they are outside the United States, then they may be eligible to apply using consular processing.

If you need to travel outside of the United States while your I-485 is still being processed, then you will need to file Form I-131 (“Application for Travel Document”). If you travel without this, USCIS may believe that you have abandoned your I-485 application and reject it.

Sometimes, you can file Form I-131 and Form I-765 (“Application for Employment Authorization”) together, either with your I-485 application or afterwards. USCIS will process these together and give you a combined work and travel permit. This is officially called an Employment Authorization Document (EAD)-Advanced Parole card. This card will allow you to travel outside the United States and also work while you wait for your green card application to be processed.

You can check the status of your I-485 application online or over the phone. In both cases, you will need your 13-digit USCIS case receipt number. You can find this number on any correspondence you have had with USCIS.

Form I-485 can be rejected for any number of reasons. Sometimes, it may be denied because some of the required documents were missing. If your I-485 is denied, you may be able to appeal the application. You can also choose to restart your application. However, to make things easier and avoid this happening, you can reach out to Boundless for help with your green card application.

If you have filed Form I-485 and you wish to work while your green card application is still pending, then you will need to apply for a work permit, or an Employment Authorization Document (EAD).

To do this, you will need to file Form I-765. You can send this form at the same time as you file Form I-485, or at any time while your application is still processing. In most cases, your work permit will be processed in less than 12 months, and you can begin working as soon as you receive it.

Since the work permit is valid for a year, sometimes you may need to renew it while still waiting for your green card to be approved. If this happens, you can submit a new Form I-765.

If your relative has filed Form I-130 but you’re not eligible to apply for a green card yet, you cannot apply for a work permit.

If you are the spouse of a U.S. citizen and have lawfully entered the United States, you can file Form I-485 to adjust your status and start your journey towards becoming a green card holder.

If you are the fiancé(e) of a U.S. citizen, you can file Form I-485 if you entered the United States on a K-1 nonimmigrant visa and married the same U.S. citizen who filed Form I-129F, (Petition for Alien Fiancé(e)) for you within 90 days of arriving in the United States. Once you are married, USCIS considers you to be an immediate relative, and you can apply for a marriage-based green card.

If you are applying for a marriage-based green card, you can file Form I-485 at the same time that your U.S. citizen spouse files Form I-130. You can also do this if you are an immediate relative of the U.S. citizen who is filing Form I-130 on your behalf, for example, if you are the parent of the petitioner, or you are their unmarried child and you are younger than 21 years old.

If you are applying for a family-preference green card or an employment-based green card, sometimes a visa may not be immediately available. In this case, you will need to wait after USCIS has approved the Form I-130 petition, and an immigrant visa number is available. You will be able to track this on the monthly visa bulletin published by the U.S. Department of State.

When you file Form I-485, USCIS may request biometric information to confirm your identity and run a background check.

As the beneficiary, you will also need to answer questions about your criminal history, both inside and outside the United States. If you have a criminal record, things may get complicated, but it does not necessarily mean your green card application will be denied.

If you have filed Form I-485 to adjust your status through an offer of employment but wish to change jobs, you may still be eligible to apply for an adjustment of status through your new role, if the new job is similar.

To request job portability, you can file Form I-485 Supplement J, which will require both you and your new employer to submit information. You should file this at the same location where you filed Form I-485.

Form I-485 is used when the person who is applying for their green card is already in the United States. If they are outside the U.S., then they may find it more convenient to apply for a green card through consular processing. While eligibility requirements for both are similar, both processes are quite different, with separate forms and costs involved.

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